The Official Patients Sourcebook on Uterine Fibroids

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After 13 weeks' gestation, there is a higher risk of placenta retention. Prevention of a miscarriage can sometimes be accomplished by decreasing risk factors. Often there is little a person can do to prevent a miscarriage. Maintaining a healthy weight and good pre-natal care can reduce the risk of miscarriage. Women who miscarry early in their pregnancy usually do not require any subsequent medical treatment but they can benefit from support and counseling.

Significant distress can often be managed by the ability of the clinician to clearly explain terms without suggesting that the woman or couple are somehow to blame. Evidence to support Rho D immune globulin after a spontaneous miscarriage is unclear. No treatment is necessary for a diagnosis of complete miscarriage so long as ectopic pregnancy is ruled out.

In cases of an incomplete miscarriage, empty sac, or missed abortion there are three treatment options: watchful waiting, medical management, and surgical treatment. Medical treatment usually consists of using misoprostol a prostaglandin to contract the uterus, expelling remaining tissue out of the cervix. In delayed or incomplete miscarriage, treatment depends on the amount of tissue remaining in the uterus.

Treatment can include surgical removal of the tissue with vacuum aspiration or misoprostol. An induced abortion may be performed by a physician for women who do not want to continue the pregnancy. In some locales it is illegal or carries heavy social stigma.

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Some organizations recommend delaying sex after a miscarriage until the bleeding has stopped to decrease the risk of infection. Organizations exist that provide information and counseling to help those who have had a miscarriage. Hospitals also can provide support and help memorialize the event. Depending on locale others desire to have a private ceremony. Those who experience unexplained miscarriage can be treated with emotional support.

Every woman's personal experience of miscarriage is different, and women who have more than one miscarriage may react differently to each event. In Western cultures since the s, [] medical providers assume that experiencing a miscarriage "is a major loss for all pregnant women".

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Providing family support to those experiencing the loss can be challenging because some find comfort in talking about the miscarriage while others may find the event painful to discuss. The father can have the same sense of loss. Expressing feelings of grief and loss can sometimes be harder for men. Some women are able to begin planning their next pregnancy after a few weeks of having the miscarriage.

For others, planning another pregnancy can be difficult. Parents can name and hold their infant.

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They may be given mementos such as photos and footprints. Some conduct a funeral or memorial service. They may express the loss by planting a tree. Some health organizations recommend that sexual activity be delayed after the miscarriage. The menstrual cycle should resume after about three to four months.

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Some parents want to try to have a baby very soon after the miscarriage. The decision of trying to become pregnant again can be difficult. Reasons exist that may prompt parents to consider another pregnancy. For older mothers, there may be some sense of urgency. Other parents are optimistic that future pregnancies are likely to be successful.

Many are hesitant and want to know about the risk of having another or more miscarriages. Some clinicians recommend that the women have one menstrual cycle before attempting another pregnancy. This is because the date of conception may be hard to determine. Also, the first menstrual cycle after a miscarriage can be much longer or shorter than expected. Parents may be advised to wait even longer if they have experienced late miscarriage or molar pregnancy , or are undergoing tests. Some parents wait for six months based upon recommendations from their health care provider. The risks of having another miscarriage vary according to the cause.

The risk of having another miscarriage after a molar pregnancy is very low. The risk of another miscarriage is highest after the third miscarriage.

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Pre-conception care is available in some locales. There is a significant association between miscarriage and later development of coronary artery disease , but not of cerebrovascular disease. The precise rate is not known because a large number of miscarriages occur before pregnancies become established and before the woman is aware they are pregnant. The prevalence of miscarriage increases with the age of both parents.

In , 50, inpatient admissions for miscarriage occurred in the UK. Most affected women and family members refer to miscarriage as the loss of a baby, rather than an embryo or fetus, and healthcare providers are expected to respect and use the language that the person chooses. Terms that are known to cause distress in those experiencing miscarriage include:. Pregnancy loss is a broad term that describes miscarriage, ectopic and molar pregnancies. The medical terminology applied to experiences during early pregnancy has changed over time. Some medical authors advocated change to use of miscarriage instead of spontaneous abortion because they argued this would be more respectful and help ease a distressing experience.

Society's reactions to miscarriage has changed over time. Beginning in the s, miscarriage in the US was primarily framed in terms of the individual woman's personal emotional reaction, and especially her grief over a tragic outcome. In places where induced abortion is illegal or carries social stigma, suspicion may surround miscarriage, complicating an already sensitive issue. In the s, the use of the word miscarriage in Britain instead of spontaneous abortion occurred after changes in legislation.

Developments in ultrasound technology in the early s allowed them to identify earlier miscarriages. According to French statutes, an infant born before the age of viability, determined to be 28 weeks, is not registered as a 'child'. If birth occurs after this, the infant is granted a certificate that allows women who have given birth to a stillborn child, to have a symbolic record of that child. This certificate can include a registered and given name with the purpose of allowing a funeral and acknowledgement of the event.


Miscarriage occurs in all animals that experience pregnancy, though in such contexts it is more commonly referred to as a "spontaneous abortion" the two terms are synonymous. There are a variety of known risk factors in non-human animals. For example, in sheep, miscarriage may be caused by crowding through doors, or being chased by dogs.

Other diseases are also known to make animals susceptible to miscarriage. Spontaneous abortion occurs in pregnant prairie voles when their mate is removed and they are exposed to a new male, [] an example of the Bruce effect , although this effect is seen less in wild populations than in the laboratory.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For usage in law, see Miscarriage of justice. Further information: List of miscarriage risks. Further information: Advanced maternal age. See also: Smoking and pregnancy. Immune status [9] [79] Chemical and occupational exposures [40] Anatomical defects [84] [27] Intercurrent diseases [77] [32] Polycystic ovary syndrome [] [] [] [] [75] Previous exposure to chemotherapy and radiation Medications [29] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] Surgical history [60] Endocrine disorders [39] [] [ needs update ] Genetic abnormalities [26] [27].

Further information: Self-induced abortion.

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See also: Miscarriage and grief and Miscarriage and mental illness. Archived from the original on September 10, Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Retrieved May 5, July 15, Archived from the original on April 2, Retrieved March 14, Biomedical Journal. The Practitioner. J Autoimmun Review. October 21, September 23, Archived from the original on October 5, Retrieved October 4, Journal of Clinical Nursing. January 10, Retrieved September 11, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

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