Models of My Life

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How many people write a book of epigrams to themselves? Get it. Read it. Live it. Reading helps us to think, feel, and reflect — not only upon ourselves and others but upon our ideas, and our relationship with the world.

Reading deepens our understanding and helps us live consciously. Of the 46 articles we published on FS this […]. We are not taught how to learn in school, we are taught how to pass tests. The spacing effect is a far more effective way to learn and retain information that works with our brain instead of against it. Find out how to use it here. The most important metaskill you can learn is how […].


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Why is it that some people seem to be able to read a book once and remember every detail of it for life, while others struggle to recall even the title a few days after putting down a book? The answer is simple but not easy. Ernest Hemingway on Writing. The Great Mental Models Book. Of the 46 articles we published on FS this […] Continue Reading. The most important metaskill you can learn is how […] Continue Reading.

How to Remember What You Read Reading Time 19 minutes Why is it that some people seem to be able to read a book once and remember every detail of it for life, while others struggle to recall even the title a few days after putting down a book? The cultural life script is a stereotypical, arguably idealized, version of a life.

Events that violate the cultural life script e.

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King and Hicks found that individuals were more likely to construct new meaning i. Under optimal circumstances, these newly constructed schemes represent elevated levels of wisdom. Staudinger and colleagues suggested that reflection on autobiographical experiences i. Using standardized coding manuals, narrative psychologists assess content, structure, and process in autobiographical narratives of important life events. Narrative content primarily concerns the subject matter of the narrative, including event characteristics e.

Narrative structure concerns the composition of the narrative, most typically, how coherent the story is e. In the present study, we operationalized narrative structure with a multidimensional measure of narrative coherence, and narrative processing with measures of meaning-making and personal growth.

Some research has shown that meaning-making and personal growth i. In the present study, we first content analyzed wisdom-fostering life event memories for fundamentality, cultural normativity, emotional valence, and event type. Second, we examined qualities of self-reflective processing, with a particular focus on reconstructive and analytical aspects of self-reflection.

Third, we examined how self-reflective processing differed as a function of wisdom-fostering event characteristics. We hypothesized that, on average, wisdom-fostering life events would be highly fundamental, culturally non-normative, and emotionally negative e. Wiser people would be more likely than others to report fundamental, culturally non-normative, and emotionally negative life events.

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Wisdom would be positively associated with narrative coherence, meaning-making, and personal growth. Analytical aspects of self-reflection i. Levels of narrative coherence, meaning-making, and personal growth would be highest among fundamental, culturally non-normative, and emotionally negative events. In order to qualify, participants had to be between the ages of 40 and 65 years. A total of AMT users opened the survey and chose to complete it. Although AMT is a regulated online crowdsourcing platform, we were concerned about participants providing fraudulent responses, specifically where the participant selected the same response option for all items on a multi-item Likert-style questionnaire.

To identify fraudulent responses of this nature, we computed standard deviations for all multi-item questionnaire variables. Thus, data from participants was retained for the final sample.

Models of My Life by Herbert A. Simon

In terms of demographics, average participant age was Participants were directed to a secure website where they completed the online survey. Upon completion, participants were compensated via their AMT account. The item 3D-WS defines wisdom as the integration of cognitive, reflective, and compassionate personality characteristics Ardelt, Items are rated on one of two five-point Likert scales strongly agree to strongly disagree or definitely true of myself to not true of myself. The item SAWS defines wisdom as the integration of five wisdom facets: critical life experience, reminiscence and reflectiveness, openness, emotion regulation, and humour Webster, Each facet is assessed with an 8-item subscale, with items rated on a six-point Likert scale strongly disagree to strongly agree.

The item ASTI-R defines wisdom as a form of self-transcendence, which entails decreased self-concern and elevated levels of empathy, understanding, spirituality, and connectedness with past and future generations Levenson et al. Items are rated on a four-point Likert scale disagree strongly to agree strongly. As a last step, the overall wisdom scores on three self-report questionnaires were standardized and averaged to create a self-report wisdom composite variable.

What should one take into consideration and do in such a situation? This approach is extremely resource-taxing and was thus modified for the present study. Second, written responses were scored by 10 naive judges rather than trained experts. The naive judges were senior undergraduate students enrolled in a research opportunity program. Naive judges were not trained to use a standardized scoring manual, but instead were told to rate how wise the responses were, based on their own subjective wisdom theory, on a six-point bipolar scale from 1 very unwise to 6 very wise. These scores were averaged to create an overall general wisdom performance score.

Full instructions for participants are provided in the Supplementary Materials. Inter-rater reliability and interrelations among measures of wisdom are presented in Table 1. The naive rating approach is supported by Staudinger et al. Note : Inter-reliability statistics are reported as intraclass correlation coefficients two-way random effects model, absolute agreement definition.

Point-biserial correlations coefficients are presented for gender, with female coded as 0 and male coded as 1. Rather than solve a hypothetical dilemma, participants were asked about what they thought or did when solving life-related problems from their personal past.


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  8. Specifically, they were asked to write about a time when they had experienced some sort of a conflict with a close friend. These instructions were modified from the prompt used by Mickler and Staudinger , which asked participants to reflect somewhat generally on how they are as friends. The domain of friendship was kept consistent, but the modified task focused specifically on a conflict situation in order to keep the event type standardized across participants. All other instructions paralleled the general wisdom task exactly. Instructions are included in the Supplementary Materials. Participants provided a written autobiographical memory of wisdom-fostering life event, prompted by the following instructions:.

    Often people report having gained wisdom from significant life experiences. In reflection on life experience, people sometimes learn lessons or gain insights that they consider to be wise. It is not necessary that you felt wiser while the event was occurring—it could be that you gained wisdom in reflection on the event, and looking back you now see the event as one that helped you grow in wisdom.

    If you feel that you have had no wisdom-promoting experiences in your life, then describe a particular episode in your life that comes closer than any other to qualifying as one. Participants were instructed to describe the wisdom-fostering experience in narrative form, and when telling their story, to include information about: what happened, when it happened, and who was involved; what they were thinking, feeling, and wanting at the time; why the experience is a significant event in their life story; and what the event might say about who that person is, were, and might become, and how they have developed over time.

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    Participants reported the age at which their wisdom-fostering event occurred. Overlap in coding group membership was avoided in order to reduce the possible effects of coder bias and thus shared method variance. For each coding system, coders scored the narratives in multiple waves, with reliability computed after each wave in order to assess coder drift.

    Within each wave, the narratives were randomized across coders, which eliminated order effects. Narrative excerpts are included in the Supplementary Materials. Two coders scored narratives for their focal or primary event—that is, the real-life context, situation, or setting of the narrative.

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    Primary event types were extracted and collapsed into meaningful categories until saturation was reached at seven distinct types, which are listed in Table 2. To add nuance, the four highest frequency wisdom-fostering event types— a relationship events, b life-threatening and mortality events, c career events, occupation, and job events, and d formal and informal learning experiences—were subsequently scored for event sub-types.

    Two expert coders took an inductive approach to determining sub-types, paralleling the procedure used for establishing primary event types, and then independently categorized each memory. Event sub-types are presented in Table 3 , along with descriptive statistics and inter-rater reliability. Fundamentality was defined as the extent to which an event is significant, core, or central to human life and well-being e. Cultural normativity was defined as the perceived likelihood that the average person in society would experience an event over the course of their lifespan.

    Culturally normative events make up the stereotypical life script e. In contrast, culturally non-normative events are unexpected or unique e. Emotional valence was defined as the extent to which an event would evoke a positive e. The middle point of the scale represented an event that was emotionally neutral or mixed in emotion i.

    Background analyses indicated that emotional valence and cultural normativity were substantially positively skewed, and fundamentality was substantially negatively skewed. Narrative coherence was scored using Reese et al. In this model, narrative coherence is conceptualized as a multidimensional construct that has three facets: contextual coherence, defined as the extent to which the narrator established a specific time and place for the story; chronological coherence, defined as the extent to which story actions or events could be placed on a timeline; and thematic coherence, defined as the extent to which a narrative remained on topic and lacked digression.

    In Reese et al. To avoid confounding narrative structure with process, for the present study, these characteristics were not scored as indicators of thematic coherence.

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